Teaching reading in debate

In 1997, Argentina was positioned as the second nation with the best results in regional reading tests, just behind Cuba. However, since then, it has experienced a constant decline in its performance, ranking as one of the worst in ratings for the year 2019.

This deterioration is attributed to the change from the traditional syllabic method to the global approach to teaching reading.

The global method, which promotes reading by whole word, is based on the assumption that words can be understood by their form, has generated controversy and justified criticism. Although it may seem effective at first, children forget the words once learned, since they are not taught to decipher new words from the combination of letters and sounds.

This first stage of so-called pictorial reading, although artificial, can be considered a first step in word recognition, similar to image recognition, but without the ability to decode them.

However, the essential basis for effective reading lies in the teaching of letters (graphemes) and their sounds (phonemes). This process, known as phonological awareness, involves children understanding that words can be broken down into phonemes, sounds that combine to form new words. It is crucial to explicitly teach these skills, since the discovery of phonemes is not automatic.

The third stage is the orthographic phase, where reading experience allows the acquisition of a large vocabulary and does not make it necessary to read the word by its letters. Automating the process allows you to increase reading speed and comprehension.

Furthermore, through specific training, it is possible to turn the common reader into a fast and comprehensive reader. In this phase, the expert reader not only reads words, but understands their meaning in context, identifies relationships between ideas and extracts information efficiently.

Reading becomes a fluid and pleasant activity, enriching the knowledge and experience of the individual. This level of reading competence is the ultimate goal of any reading teaching program, and its achievement reflects not only the mastery of the written code, but also the cognitive and emotional development of the reader.

The contemporary school, unfortunately, has neglected this fundamental teaching. The practice of reading and writing in the classroom has been lost, and the concept of dictation and correction has been abandoned. In the past, children were taught to read, write, add and subtract, but this view has faded with the belief that children already possess prior knowledge.

He transformed his educational approach from global to structured methods, achieving results comparable to those of the prosperous state of Florida. How do i do it? Through a scientific approach to reading instruction, early detection of reading difficulties, and ensuring that all students can read by the end of third grade.

There are several approaches, such as global, syllabic and phonetic. While each has its advantages and disadvantages, phonetic methods emerge as the most effective and fastest. Although they may initially present difficulties in pronouncing isolated phonemes, the combination of pronounceable vowels and consonants allows children to understand the concept quickly.

Therefore, the teaching of reading must be approached as a science, where the formation of brain circuits responsible for reading in the child's brain is prioritized. Parents and teachers play a crucial role in this process, encouraging simultaneous learning of the alphabet and phonemes, and providing an environment conducive to vocabulary practice and development.

In conclusion, teaching reading is a primary task in schooling, with a direct impact on the academic and personal success of children. It is essential to adopt approaches based on scientific evidence adapted to the individual needs of students to ensure effective and lasting learning.